EduGraphie | Context-sensitive videography to capture digital transfor-mation processes in schools and classrooms
- How can teaching-learning events and related media-based pedagogical practices be investigated in situ so that interactional events and individual perspectives come into view?
- How do teachers act in, with, and through digital media in their professional everyday life?
- What pedagogical practices in, with, and through digital media can be observed?
- Furthermore, how can everyday media-based pedagogical practices of teachers be reconstructed and empirical statements on transformation processes of school and teaching be made?
The everyday work of teachers is increasingly changing through the use of digital media in schools. Recently, the digitalization processes in teaching-learning environments were significantly accelerated by school closures during the Corona pandemic and the need to design school at home with the help of digital media (cf. Fickermann and Edelstein, 2020). Both at the level of teaching and in non-formal areas of the school, new technologies are creating changed requirements for teachers' professional actions (cf. KMK, 2016; KMK, 2020). Despite the existence of many studies on media use in schools (cf. BITKOM, 2015; Eickelmann et al., 2019; Lorenz et al., 2017), it is still insufficiently clarified how exactly teachers act pedagogically through, with, and in digital media and which practices develop in interaction with technology.
The project EduGraphie, therefore, investigates in ethnographic style the pedagogical practices of teachers' media actions in situ and actu. The data is collected multimodally: using a (mobile) video cam, 360-degree camera, camera robot, eye-tracking glasses, or traditionally with pad and pen.
The aim is to reconstruct everyday media practices of teachers with the collected data and thus to be able to make empirical statements about transformation processes. Furthermore, the recorded practices are to be used in university teaching to enable students of educational sciences and teachers to transfer theory to practice. In addition, the project is not only interested in the survey itself, but also in the methodological reflection on research under conditions of increasing digitalization (see research tools).
In the project, we pursue a reconstructive-praxeological research approach. The research project is interdisciplinary with approaches from education and media studies as well as sociology. Since the research interest is directed towards practices (to be discovered), we have chosen an ethnographic approach for the collection of the research data: using video-assisted participant observation, teachers are observed in their everyday life. The data obtained will be reconstructed through sequence analysis.
Which data collection methods are suitable for investigating teachers' media practices? Above all, the further development of mobile recording media enables new perspectives on practices. Through mobile eye-tracking, for example, not only the attention foci of teachers can be recorded. Researchers can also record the eye movements and the visual field of vision of a teacher wearing the eye-tracking glasses synchronously in time. While videography has so far been used to make visible in particular the speaking, interacting, and acting of actors in videos (Tuma, 2018), the video created by eye tracking can - in the truest sense of the word - open up new perspectives on practices in which seeing is made visible. We call this making visible of seeing and analyzing eye-viewing - as a synthesis of focal videography and video ethnography as well as eye-tracking (as a data collection tool). Evaluated hypermedially, i.e. with different materials from written language and videos, practices can be reconstructed from the perspective of both the researchers and the teachers.
As a sub-project of the research project EduGraphie, "School@Home" (project start: 04/2020) focuses on media-based school practices in the family. Due to the school closures, media practices from school massively encroach on families and lead to changes in everyday life. In lessons from a distance, pupils work on (media-supported) tasks. In terms of school theory, we understand the phenomenon of "School@Home" as a phenomenon of modernization, in which the boundaries between school and extracurricular fields, such as families and circles of friends, are reorganized.
To reliably explore this reorganization, we ethnographically examine how these practices are enacted from school to the other side of the screen, i.e., in the family home, during the Covid 19 school closures in the 2020/2021 school years. To do this, we observe the everyday school-related actions of children and adolescents and conduct interviews with parents and their children.
We hope that this will enable us to analyze current and widespread practices of schooling in everyday family life and thus uncover the light but also the shady sides of this form and the dissolution of school boundaries.
Publications in the context of the project
- Neto Carvalho, I., Troxler, C. & Schiefner-Rohs, M. (in Bearb.). From Eye-Tracking to Eye-Viewing: Ethnographic Qualitative Research with Focused Videography.
- Neto Carvalho, I. (2017): Gymnasium und Ganztagsschule. Videographische Fallstudie zur Konstitution pädagogischer Ordnung. Springer VS, Wiesbaden.
- Troxler, C. & Schiefner-Rohs, M. (Eingereicht). Digitale Medien im beruflichen Alltag von Lehrer*innen – sozio-materielle Praktiken mit Fokus auf Dimensionen des Organisierens. ZfE Forum.
- Troxler, C. & Schiefner-Rohs, M. (2020). Medienbasierte pädagogische Praktiken - Digitale Medien im (beruflichen) Alltag von Lehrer*innen. In: K. Kaspar, M. Becker-Mrotzek, S. Hofhues, J. König & D. Schmeinck (Hrsg.), Bildung, Schule und Digitalisierung. (S. 376-381). Münster: Waxmann.
- BITKOM. (2015). Digitale Schule - vernetztes Lernen: Ergebnisse repräsentativer Schüler- und Lehrerbefragungen zum Einsatz digitaler Medien im Schulunterricht. Verfügbar unter https://www.bitkom.org/sites/default/files/file/import/BITKOM-Studie-Digitale-Schule-2015.pdf [02.12.2019].
- Eickelmann, B., Bos, W., Gerick, J., Goldhammer, F., Schaumburg, H., Schwippert, K., Senkbeil, M., & Vahrenhold, J. (2019). ICILS 2018 #Deutschland. Computer- und informationsbezogene Kompetenzen von Schülerinnen und Schülern im zweiten internationalen Vergleich und Kompetenzen im Bereich Computional Thinking. Münster; New York: Waxmann.
- Fickermann, D., & Edelstein, B. (2020). "Langsam vermisse ich die Schule ...". Schule während und nach der Corona-Pandemie. Münster, New York: Waxmann.
- KMK. (2016). Bildung in der digitalen Welt. Strategie der Kultusministerkonferenz. Verfügbar unter: https://www.kmk.org/fileadmin/Dateien/pdf/PresseUndAktuelles/2017/Strategie_neu_2017_datum_1.pdf [29.11.2019].
- KMK. (2020). Corona-Pandemie. Rahmen für aktualisierte Infektionsschutz- und Hygienemaßnahmen (Beschluss der Kultusministerkonferenz vom 14.07.2020). Berlin: KMK.
- Lorenz, R., Bos, W., Endberg, M., Eickelmann, B., Grafe, S., & Vahrenhold, J. (2017). Schule digital - der Länderindikator 2017. Schulische Medienbildung in der Sekundarstufe I mit besonderem Fokus auf dei MINT-Fächer im Bundesländervergleich und Trends von 2015 bis 2017. Münster; New York: Waxmann.
- Tuma, R. (2018). Eine reflexive Betrachtung der Video-Analyse: Datenanalysesitzungen im Fokus. In M. Hietzge (Hrsg.), Interdisziplinäte Videoanalyse. Rekonstruktionen einer Videosequenz aus unterschiedlichen Blickwinkeln (S. 259-279). Opladen; Berlin; Toronto: Verlag Barbara Budrich.